Skip to main content

Getting Started with XML


Traditionally, organizations have conducted business on paper. Preprinted formats were most widely used to exchange information between businesses. As the number of transactions between different organizations increased over the years, there was a need for a more effective way of communicating and processing business data. Electronic Data Interchange (IDE) emerged as a result of this need. EDI refers to the process of exchanging documents in a standard format between two computer systems.

The two widely used EDI standards for transmitting data between computers are ANSI X12 and UN/EDIFACT. if data is transmitted using EDI standards, the data can be translated to or from the end-user's application format with the help of EDI software, such as RealWorld and Macola.

Consider an example of two companies, X and Y, using RealWorld and Macola, respectively to convert their files into EDI formats. Without an EDI standard, company Y cannot translate the EDI files received from company X into Macola-compatible format. This is because the EDI formats of RealWorld and Macola are dissimilar, However, if the files formatted using RealWorld are converted into one of the EDI standards, then company Y can translate invoice files received from company X into Macola-compatible format.

Although EDI standards provide an effective solution for e-commerce transactions, they Have not been widely accepted due to the following  limitations:

  • Rigid transaction set: Traditional EDI was built on fixed transaction sets. Consider The following example. Company A’s invoice bill currently includes the customer Name, company name, phone number, and cash amount. If one of its trading partners Starts accepting  credit cards, then company A has to modify the invoice bill to Include credit card details. If Company A uses EDI to exchange data, then the EDI Format has to reflect this change. This is a tedious and time-consuming process, Because the Accredited Standards Committee X12  sub-group of ANSI or the UN/EDIF ACT working group must recognize the new format. Therefore, the fixed Transaction set becomes a bottleneck to business units that evolve new services, Products, and business processes.

  • Fixed business rules: The business rules of small, medium, and large business units Of the same industry widely vary. Due to this, the same set of  EDI standards cannot Be uniformly implemented across all of them.
  • High costs: It can be expensive for small- and medium-size business units to Implement EDI standards as compared to large business units, because of high Networking costs. Even large business units that have high investments in automation Will not be ready to replace their systems based on EDI standards. Therefore, Acceptance of EDI is restricted to a few business units who are willing to invest in EDI.
  • Slow pace of standards evolution : As EDI standards cater to companies with different needs, the process of developing these standards is time consuming. In addition, the standards may not cater to the needs of all companies.
Therefore, EDI does not server as a cost-effective solution to implement data interchange among heterogeneous systems.

Introducing XML

XML is a text-based markup language that enables you to store data in a structured format by using meaningful tags. The term "extensible" implies that you can extend your ability to describe a document by defining meaningful tags for your application. XML is a cross-platform, hardware and software independent markup language. It enables computers to transfer structured data between heterogeneous systems. XML is used as a common data interchange format in a number of applications. In the example of the B2B e-commerce model, xml can be used to exchange data between the trading partners, thus eliminating the problems faced by EDI.

Web Architecture Using XML

In a traditional Web architecture, a client sends a request to the server in a predefined format and receives the appropriate response. The advantage of using XML in Web architecture is that the structure of the request can be obtained from the server at runtime. This is possible because the data stored in a XML document does not assume its intended use. Different applications can extract data according to their customized needs. Since XML is used to exchange data between various Web applications, the coupling between the server application and the client application is relatively loose.

XML can encode non-relational data, as well as, relational data structures. This enables the server application to extract data from any data source, and helps the programmers to quickly build applications for the manipulation of that data.

XML Web Architecture
XML Web Architecture


Popular posts from this blog

difference between structure and union in C Language

In c language article we will see the difference between union and structure. Both are the user define datatype in c language. See the table which is mentioned below: ASP.NET Video Tutorial Series Structure Union1.The keywordstruct is used to define a structure 1. The keyword union is used to define a union. 2. When a variable is associated with a structure, the compiler allocates the memory for each member. The size of structure is greater than or equal to the sum ofsizes of its members. The smaller members may end with unused slack bytes. 2. When a variable is associated with a union, thecompiler allocates thememory by considering the size of the largest memory. So, size of union is equal to the size of largest member. 3. Each member within a structure is assigned unique storage area of location. 3. Memory allocated is shared by individual members of union. 4. The address of each member will be in ascending order This indicates that memory for each member will start at different offset v…

Difference between Linear search and Binary Search in c language

SQL Video Channel : Download all SQL Video

Binary Search Linear Search Works only on sorted items. such as  1,2,3,4,5,6  etc
Works on sorted as well as unsorted items. 12,4,5,3,2,1 etc Very efficient if the items are sorted Very efficient if the items are less and present in the beginning of the list. such as Suppose your list items are : 12,3,4,5,1 and you want to search 12 number then you get beginning in the list. Works well with arrays and not on linked lists. Works with arrays and linked lists.
Number of comparisons are less More number of comparisons are required if the items are present in the later part of the array or its elements are more.

Memory representation of Linked List Data Structures in C Language

Memory representation of Linked List

             In memory the linked list is stored in scattered cells (locations).The memory for each node is allocated dynamically means as and when required. So the Linked List can increase as per the user wish and the size is not fixed, it can vary.

               Suppose first node of linked list is allocated with an address 1008. Its graphical representation looks like the figure shown below:

      Suppose next node is allocated at an address 506, so the list becomes,

  Suppose next node is allocated with an address with an address 10,s the list become,

The other way to represent the linked list is as shown below:

 In the above representation the data stored in the linked list is “INDIA”, the information part of each node contains one character. The external pointer root points to first node’s address 1005. The link part of the node containing information I contains 1007, the address of next node. The last node …