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Characteristics of Programming : C Language

Now, let us see “What is programming? What are the characteristics of good programming?”

Definition: The art of writing or designing the programs to provide a solution to the well-defined problem is called programming. As the saying goes ‘practice makes a man perfect’, developing such an art requires thorough practice. The following 10 characteristics if followed in a proper way will improve the quality of programming :

Characteristics of good Programming:
  1. Accurate
  2. Efficient
  3. Maintainable
  4. Portable
  5. Readable
  6. Reliable
  7. Robust
  8. Usable
  9. Documentation
  10. Indentation

Now, let us see, “the characteristics of programming” in detail.

Accurate: The programming of a program is based on a certain problem. The problem must be pie-defined clearly with specification of requirements. It is expected from the programmer to design a program that strictly follows these requirements. So, the designed program must be accurate to perform the specified task. Such characteristic of programming is referred ‘accurate’.

Efficient: Every program designed by programming utilizes the resources of the computer system. It is expected from the programming that the designed program utilizes these resources in an efficient manner. It means the program must not spend much time or over use the processor in executing its coded instructions. Such characteristic of the programming is referred ‘efficient’.

Maintainable: When proper structuring method is used in programming, the designed program can be made maintainable. Here maintainable means the ability to change as per the new needs. With very little modification a program should work for the new needs. Such characteristic of programming is referred ‘maintainable”.

Portable: It is expected from the designed program that it can be carried to any platform to solve the task. If the programming is done keeping many systems rather than one system in mind the designed programs are portable. Once the program is portable, it can be easily transferred from one machine to an other. Such characteristic of programming is referred ‘portable’.

Readable: The program designed by the programmer must be self readable as he is the first reader. Generally the designed program is also read by co-programmers or others. So, the designed program must contain proper comments to explain the coded instructions. This commenting will help in understanding and reading the program. Such characteristic of programming is referred ‘readable’.

Reliable: The designed program must perform as per the need all the time. It should also produce the intended results for any sort of inputs. In case of improper inputs, it should stop only after displaying proper error messages. These will indicate the cause of termination of the program. Such programs are created with the ‘reliable’ characteristic of the programming.

Robust: The designed program is expected to continue with its functionality even at the unexpected errors. It is the art of programming that takes care of all the possible errors before com¬pleting the design. Such programs keep on doing their work even at worst situations. Such characteristic of programming is referred ‘robust’.

Usable: The designed program must be easy to use. It must be designed with proper interactive messages so that the user can easily get accustomed to it. Proper thinking in interface design will prove its worthiness. The documentation of the program must be prepared in good format to train the users. Such characteristic of the programming is referred ‘usable’.

Documentation: The usage of comments or remarks to explain the coded instructions and the modules of the program is called documenting the program. Such documented program will also help in providing other characteristic of the programming. The comments will help to find the errors as well as to rectify them. When the program is lengthy one proper documentation will properly connect the components of the program. It improves the readability as well as usability of the program. Such characteristic of programming is referred ‘documentation’.

Indentation: The coded instructions of the designed program must properly match with beginning and ending of the structures or compound statements. Especially in case of C language, the compiler understands the code even if it is not properly indented. The indentation is mainly required for the users or programmers not for the compiler. The indentation improves the clarity of the program as well as its understanding. It will also help in debugging that is to remove the errors. Such characteristic of the programming is referred 'indentation'.


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             In memory the linked list is stored in scattered cells (locations).The memory for each node is allocated dynamically means as and when required. So the Linked List can increase as per the user wish and the size is not fixed, it can vary.

               Suppose first node of linked list is allocated with an address 1008. Its graphical representation looks like the figure shown below:

      Suppose next node is allocated at an address 506, so the list becomes,

  Suppose next node is allocated with an address with an address 10,s the list become,

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 In the above representation the data stored in the linked list is “INDIA”, the information part of each node contains one character. The external pointer root points to first node’s address 1005. The link part of the node containing information I contains 1007, the address of next node. The last node …