Skip to main content

Literals and with its Types used in NetBeans part-1: Java

In Java Programming, Literals (often referred to as constants) are data items that are fixed data values. Java allows several kinds of literals:
  • Integer-literal
  • Floating-literals
  • Boolean-literals
  • Character-literals
  • Strings-literal
  • Null literals

Integer Literals

Integer literals are whole numbers without any fractional part. The method of writing integer constants has been specified in the following rule.
An integer constant must have at least one more digit and must not contain any decimal point. It may contain either + or – sing. A number with no sing is assumed to be positive. Commas cannot appear in an integer constant.
Java allows three types of integer literals:
  • An integer literal consisting of a sequence of digit is taken to be decimal integer constant unless it begins with 0(digit zero). For instance, 1234, 41, +97,-17 are decimal integer literals.
  • A sequence of digit starting with 0(digit zero) is taken to be an octal integer. For instance decimal integer 8 will be written as 010 as octal integer (810 =108) and decimal integer 12 will be written as 014 as octal integer (1210 = 1410). But make sure that when an integer begins with 0, it must not contain 8 and 9 as these are invalid octal digits.
  • A sequence of digit preceded by 0x or OX is taken to be a hexadecimal integer. For instance decimal 12 will be written as 0XC as hexadecimal integer. But with Hexadecimal constants only 0-9 and A-F can be used. All other letters are illegal.

Floating Literals

Floating literals are also called real literals. Real literals are numbers having fractional parts. These may be written in one of the two forms called fractional form or the exponent form.

A real literal in fraction form consist of signed or unsigned digits including a decimal point between digits. The rule for writing a real constant in fraction from is given below:
A real literal in fraction form must have at least one digit before a decimal point and at last one digit after decimal point. It may also have either + or – sign preceding it. A real literal with no sign is assumed to be positive.        
Valid real literals in fraction form contains 2.0, 17.5, -13.0, -0.00625
Invalid real constants contains 7, (7.), +17/2, 250.26.2, (17,250.262)

A real literals in exponent form consists of two parts: mantissa and exponent. For instance 5.8 can be written as 0.58 X 10 = o.58E01 where mantissa part is 0.58 (the part appearing before E) and exponent part is 1(the part appearing after E). E01 represent 10 1 . The rule for writing a real literal in exponent from is given below:
A real literal in exponent from has two parts: a mantissa and an exponent. The mantissa must be either must be an integer or a proper real literal. The mantissa is followed by a letter E or e and the exponent. The exponent must be an integer.
Valid real literals in exponent form: 152E05, 1.52E07, 0,152E08, 152.0E08, 152E+8, 1520E04

Invalid real literals in exponent from:
      (i)  172.E5                    (at least a digit must follow the decimal point)
      (ii) 1.7E                         (no digit specified for exponent)
      (iii) 0.17E2.3                (exponent cannot have fraction part)
      (iv) 17,225E02             (no comma allowed)
      (v) .25E-7                      (no preceding digits before decimal point)



Popular posts from this blog

difference between structure and union in C Language

In c language article we will see the difference between union and structure. Both are the user define datatype in c language. See the table which is mentioned below: ASP.NET Video Tutorial Series Structure Union1.The keywordstruct is used to define a structure 1. The keyword union is used to define a union. 2. When a variable is associated with a structure, the compiler allocates the memory for each member. The size of structure is greater than or equal to the sum ofsizes of its members. The smaller members may end with unused slack bytes. 2. When a variable is associated with a union, thecompiler allocates thememory by considering the size of the largest memory. So, size of union is equal to the size of largest member. 3. Each member within a structure is assigned unique storage area of location. 3. Memory allocated is shared by individual members of union. 4. The address of each member will be in ascending order This indicates that memory for each member will start at different offset v…

Difference between Linear search and Binary Search in c language

SQL Video Channel : Download all SQL Video

Binary Search Linear Search Works only on sorted items. such as  1,2,3,4,5,6  etc
Works on sorted as well as unsorted items. 12,4,5,3,2,1 etc Very efficient if the items are sorted Very efficient if the items are less and present in the beginning of the list. such as Suppose your list items are : 12,3,4,5,1 and you want to search 12 number then you get beginning in the list. Works well with arrays and not on linked lists. Works with arrays and linked lists.
Number of comparisons are less More number of comparisons are required if the items are present in the later part of the array or its elements are more.

Memory representation of Linked List Data Structures in C Language

Memory representation of Linked List

             In memory the linked list is stored in scattered cells (locations).The memory for each node is allocated dynamically means as and when required. So the Linked List can increase as per the user wish and the size is not fixed, it can vary.

               Suppose first node of linked list is allocated with an address 1008. Its graphical representation looks like the figure shown below:

      Suppose next node is allocated at an address 506, so the list becomes,

  Suppose next node is allocated with an address with an address 10,s the list become,

The other way to represent the linked list is as shown below:

 In the above representation the data stored in the linked list is “INDIA”, the information part of each node contains one character. The external pointer root points to first node’s address 1005. The link part of the node containing information I contains 1007, the address of next node. The last node …