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Null Statement and Character Manipulation in JAVA

In Java programs, statements are terminated with a semicolon (;). The simplest statement of them all is the empty, or null statement.
; it is a null statement

A null statement is useful in those instances where the syntax of the language requires the presence of a statement but where the logic of the program does not. We will see it in loops and their bodies.

Character Manipulation

Consider the following code. What does it print?
        :
System.out.print(“H” + “a”);
System.out.print(‘H’ + ‘a’);
        :

Aren’t you thinking that it would produce output as:    HaHa
But if you the program, you’ll find that the output produced is:    Ha169

As expected, the first call to System.out.print prints Ha. Its argument is the expression “H” + “a”, which performs the obvious string concatenation.
The second call to system.out.print is another story. Its argument is the expression ‘H’ + ‘a’. The problem is that ‘H’ and ‘a’ are char literals. Because neither operand is of type string, the + operator performs addition rather than string concatenation. Thus it adds ‘H”s value i.e. 72 and ‘a”s value I.e. 97 and gives 169. (A-Z have values 65-90; a-z have values 97-122).
You can force the + operator to perform string concatenation rather than addition by ensuring that at least one of its operands is a string. The common idiom is to begin a sequence of concatenations with the empty string (“ “), as follows:
    System.out.print(“ “ + ‘H’ + ‘a’) ;

But this approach can lead to some confusions also. Can you guess what the following statement prints?
    System.out.println(“2 + 2 = “ + 2 + 2);
---------------------------------------------------

Yes, you are right. It produces:    2 + 2 = 22
To perform the addition of expression 2+2 shown above, you need to convert it to Expression by enclosing it in parenthesis i.e. as
(2+2): System.Out.Println(“2+2 = ”+ (2+2));
The + operator performs string concatenation if and only If at least one of its operands is of type string: otherwise, it performs addition with primitive types.

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