Creating Table-Valued Functions in SQL

A table-valued function returns a table as an output, which can be derived as a part of a SELECT statement. Table-valued function return the output as a table data type. The table data is a special data type used to store a set of rows, which return the result set of a table-valued function. Table-valued functions are of two types:

Inline Table-Valued Function

An inline table-valued function returns a variable of a table data type from the result set of a single SELECT statement. An inline function does not contain a function body within the BEGIN and END statements.

Consider an example where the inline table-valued function, fx_Department_GName, accepts a group name as parameter and returns the details of the departments that belong to the group from the Department table. You can create the function by using the following statement:

CREATE FUNCTION fx_Department_GName ( @GrName nvarchar (20) )
RETURNS table
AS
RETURN (
SELECT *
FROM HumanResources.Department
WHERE GroupName=@GrName
)
GO

You can use the following statement to execute the fx_Department_Gname function with a specified argument:

SELECT * FROM fx_Department_GName (‘Manufacturing’)

The preceding statement will return a result set having the group name ‘Manufacturing’.

Consider another example of an inline function that accepts rate a a parameter and returns all the records that have a rate value greater than the parameter value:

CREATE FUNCTION HumanResources.Emp_Pay (@Rate int)
RETURNS table
AS
RETURN (
SELECT e.EmployeeID, e.Title, er.Rate
FROM HumanResources.Employee AS e
JOIN HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory AS er
ON e.EmployeeID=er.EmployeeID WHERE er.Rate<@Rate
)
GO
The preceding function will return a result set that displays all the records of the employees who have the pay rate greater that the parameter.

Multistatement Table-Valued Function

A Multistatement table-valued function uses multiple statements to build the table that is returned to the calling statement. The function body contains a BEGIN…END block, which holds a series of T-SQL statements to build and insert rows into a temporary table. The temporary table is returned in the result set and is created based on the specification mentioned in the function.

Consider an example where the Multistatement table-valued function, PayRate, is created to return a set of records from the EmployeePayHistory table by using the following statements:

CREATE FUNCTION PayRate (@rate money)
RETURNS @table TABLE
(EmployeeID int NOT NULL,
RateChangeDate datetime NOT NULL,
Rate money NOT NULL,
PayFrequency tinyint NOT NULL,
modifiedDate datatime NOT NULL)
AS
BEGIN
INSERT @table
SELECT *
FROM HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory
WHERE Rate > @rate
RETURN
END

The function returns a result set in from of a temporary table, @table, created within the function. You can execute the function by using the following statement:

SELECT * FROM PayRate (45)

Depending on the result set returned by a function can be categorized as deterministic or nondeterministic. Deterministic functions always return the same result whenever they are called with a specific set of input values. However, nondeterministic function may return different results each time they are called with a specific set of input values.
An example of a deterministic function is date add, which returns the same result for any given set of argument values for its three parameters. Get date is a nondeterministic function because it is always invoked without any argument, but the return value changes on every execution.


Rhett Butler

Some say he’s half man half fish, others say he’s more of a seventy/thirty split. Either way he’s a fishy bastard. Google

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